11 Types of Moss That Will Grow on Trees

There are countless varieties of moss in the world, with well over 10,000 at this point that have been classified.

And while moss is commonly associated with trees, you might be surprised to learn that not all types of moss grow on trees at all. And in fact, some types of plant and fungi life only look like moss but are completely distinct biologically.

Knowing what kinds of actual mosses grow on trees in your area can give you an advantage in a survival situation…

Moss can be used as a component in crafting, as a fire starter and some species are even edible. Keep reading and I’ll tell you about 11 types of moss that grow on trees.

Tree Moss (Order Bryales)

Of course, tree moss grows on trees! But tree moss is something of a misnomer for our list here, because it actually consists of an order that contains many different distinct species.

Nonetheless, all of these species have broad similarities: young tree moss is a pale, lime green color and turns into a rich pine- or emerald green when it’s fully grown, with each stem measuring anywhere from 2 to 4 inches in length.

Found all across the North American continent and most of Europe, it likewise grows on a huge variety of trees. Aside from the coloration, look for a plush, wooly texture, and brick-red stems to help you identify it.

Fire Moss (Ceratodon purpureus)

Fire moss is one of the most interesting and spectacularly colored examples on our list: not only does it have a bright red stalk which can give it a fiery color from the right angle, but it is usually found growing most readily in the aftermath of wildfires.

This moss seems to seek out burnt wood in order to grow!

Wherever it does take root, it grows quite low, rarely exceeding half an inch, but it grows with remarkable density, forming a springy mat on the surface.

Knight’s Plume Moss (Ptilium crista-castrensis)

Reaching up to a majestic (for moss) five inches tall, Knight’s Plume moss is named because it resembles the decorative plume atop a medieval knight’s helmet. For this reason, it is also sometimes referred to as feather moss thanks to its delicate, frond-like appearance.

Although it’s typically a creeping ground covering loss, it will sometimes grow a little bit up the trunks of trees in favorable conditions.

Notably, this moss is more resistant to sunlight than most on our lists, and can commonly be found growing where the canopy is thin or at the edge of woods.

Sheet Moss (Hypnum curvifolium)

Sheet moss, like so many others on our list, can be found almost anywhere there is shade and moisture. It is highly variable in length; some stay quite close to the ground while others can grow several inches long.

Another primary characteristic is that it grows in a uniformly thick, continuous sheet, hence the name. It is easily recognized by its overall appearance, usually described as carpet-like.

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EPIC Statement on the Introduction of the Traveler Privacy Protection Act

Today, Senators Jeff Merkley (D-OR) and John Kennedy (R-LA) introduced the Traveler Privacy Protection Act, which would prohibit the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) from using facial recognition. The TSA has been testing the use of facial recognition at various airports over the past few years and despite warnings of the dangers of implementing facial recognition technology, TSA plans to push the technology out to hundreds of airports. EPIC Senior Counsel, Jeramie Scott, has explained why TSA’s plans to implement facial recognition in airports across the country is so dangerous.

EPIC has previously urged on Congress to suspend TSA’s use of facial recognition and in comments to the TSA, insisted the agency halt the deployment of facial recognition programs. Earlier this year, EPIC supported Senators’ call for TSA to stop the use of facial recognition.

Jeramie Scott, EPIC Senior Counsel & Director of the Project on Surveillance Oversight, released the following statement on the Traveler Privacy Protection Act:

“The Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) applauds the introduction of the Traveler Privacy Protection Act and its prohibition on TSA’s use of facial recognition technology. The privacy risks and discriminatory impact of facial recognition are real, and the government’s use of our faces as IDs poses a serious threat to our democracy. The TSA should not be allowed to unilaterally subject millions of travelers to this dangerous technology,” said Jeramie Scott, Senior Counsel and Director of EPIC’s Project on Surveillance Oversight.

Media Post: California Privacy Regulator Floats New Restrictions On Ad Profiling 

But privacy advocate John Davisson, director of litigation at the Electronic Privacy Information Center, notes that California’s privacy law specifically directs the state privacy agency to issue regulations regarding automated decision-making. 

He adds that a rule requiring companies to allow opt-outs would still allow publishers to serve targeted ads to consumers. 

“The industry talks about how consumers want targeted advertising,” he says, adding that an opt-out requirement “calls them on their bluff.” 

Read more here.

A Prepper’s Gift-Giving Guide – Survivopedia

There are a lot of different ideas out there about how to celebrate Christmas. Every culture has its own traditions and each family seems to have them as well. Part of that is usually giving gifts to one another, whether they be large or small, store bought or homemade; even whether they are personal or just something that someone grabbed in the checkout line.

I’ve never been the type to just buy any old gift, especially those pre-packaged “generic” gifts that you find stacked up in all the department stores. I’ve received plenty of those through the years, but I’ve never seen anyone who was thrilled to get such a gift. Something so generic just can’t be all that personal.

Then again, “personal” for preppers might seem a bit strange to others, especially to those who are not preppers. They probably have little idea of the things that would seem exciting to us, and may very well be unexcited by the things that we find exciting. Nevertheless, there are many things that we can take from our lives as preppers, which would make very thoughtful gifts to those around us, showing our love for those we care about.

I’m sure that others are creating and posting lists of Christmas gift ideas for things to ask or hint for as gifts we would like to receive as preppers. So, I’m not going to go there. Rather, I’m going to give you some ideas of prepper-oriented gifts which you can give to others.

Pocket Knife

Everyone needs a pocket knife, whether they’re a prepper or not. Yet few people today carry one. They just weren’t raised with that habit and never formed it. You can change that for your friends and family, by giving them a pocket knife. But, don’t just give them a knife, explain to them how useful a knife can be and what they can do with their knife to help them through the day.

While this obviously won’t make them preppers, it will take them one step closer to it, helping to prepare them for the day-to-day, if not for disasters.

Good Fire Starter

Everyone needs the ability to start a fire, whether it is in the fireplace, in their barbecue grille or when they’re trying to enjoy a picnic. Yet, like the pocket knife, there are few who are actually prepared to start a fire when they need one. Giving someone on your gift list the ability to start a fire quickly and easily can help them enjoy life better, bringing fire into many different activities.

Now, let me say that this is not the time to give someone a Ferro Rod. Those can be challenging to use, even for those who use them regularly. You want something that will be quick and easy to use, every time they try. I’m thinking on the level of a compact blowtorch here, or at least a storm-proof…

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15 Foods to STOCKPILE that NEVER Expire


The year is 2050. America’s once bustling cities are eerily quiet. Supermarkets have been deserted for years. But in your pantry are the foods to stockpile filled decades ago.

pantry of foods to stockpilepantry of foods to stockpileYour pantry could be stocked with foods that have virtually no shelf life.

What’s up, my preppers? Early in my prepping days I made some mistakes, particularly when it came to food storage. I purchased extra food that I put on a shelf for SHTF, thinking it was a wise move. But a few years later, I found myself discarding most of it. A hard lesson on the importance of strategic planning. Wasted time. Wasted money.

There are two pillars in my food storage strategy now:

  1. the everyday foods we love and consume regularly, rotating stock to ensure nothing goes to waste, and
  2. the timeless foods that, once stored, can outlast any crisis.

I will go through some of the critical foods in that latter category, foods that I think YOU should stockpile—today—for a long-term collapse—tomorrow. I call these “set it and forget it” foods because you buy them once, set them on a shelf, and forget it. They’re good for decades. You don’t have to think about it again. This strategy will save you time, money, and give you peace of mind.

Here is my video describing the same content in this article.

I appreciate history, and I rely on it to both provide context for prepping, but also to see what people did in the past, because the biggest threats that we’ll face in a collapse in modern civilization is the collapse of our modern civilization. By that I mean life today is very, very different from life a century or more ago. We rely on technology, just-in-time delivery, and many other fragile, modern systems. When these systems collapse, we’ll be thrown back in time. In order to survive that abrupt adjustment, we must know what people did years ago.

Foods to Stockpile That Do Not Expire

1 – White Rice

Rice has been a staple in many cultures for thousands of years. Ancient civilizations recognized its long-term storage potential. For instance, during the excavation of ancient Korean tombs dating back to the Baekje Period (18 B.C. to A.D. 660), archaeologists discovered rice stored in bronze bowls that was estimated to be around 1,400 years old. Although not fit for consumption after such a lengthy period,…

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How Fossil Fuel Revolutionized Our Kitchens and Our Food

[The Domestic Revolution: How the Introduction of Coal into Victorian Homes Changed Everything, by Ruth Goodman, Liveright Publishing Corporation; 2020. xxi + 330 pp.]

The subtitle of Ruth Goodman’s book The Domestic Revolution doesn’t come close to describing what this book is really about. Yes, this book tells us a lot about coal and how it affected Victorian domestic life. But this book is really about how what we eat and how we prepare food has been closely tied to economic, industrial, and technological changes over 400 years of history. 

Moreover, this book will provide some valuable perspective for anyone who thinks he or she spends a lot of time “slaving” over a hot stove. Whatever time we spend cooking and cleaning in the twenty-first century is nothing compared to the time, effort, expense, and planning that was needed to prepare meals for one’s family in centuries past. Coal made it all easier, even if meal prep remained generally arduous throughout the nineteenth century. 

Goodman’s overall purpose in writing this book, she tells us, is to correct an error historians and social critics have made. The problem, she writes, is that “the influence of fuel on food has been overlooked.” That is, the food we eat and the way we prepare it is not a product of mere tastes in fashion. Rather, our dining customs and cuisine are also largely a product of “economic and technical pressures” that have been tied to transitions from wood-burning kitchens to coal-burning ones. She writes: “A new fuel [i.e., coal] had driven the development of a whole new way of cooking and a radically different diet. A menu based upon boiling and baking, with a side order of toast, was the cuisine that accompanied industrialization; cause and effect were intricately linked in a fossil fuel-burning age.”

Coal didn’t just heat the food, either. Coal—and the industrialization it fueled—also gave rise to new methods of preparation. As industrialization drove up real incomes and drove down the cost of manufacturing, iron implements became more affordable and far more common. Even working-class households increasingly could afford once-scarce items like iron grates for cooking. By the nineteenth century, ordinary people could even afford cast-iron ranges. Such luxuries were exceedingly rare before the age of coal, as was the convenience that came with coal-cooking and iron implements. 

Goodman explains how prior to the age of coal, food preparation relied primarily on the burning of wood. This had many implications for both domestic life and the economy overall. In terms of life at home, preparing food with wood was more labor intensive than preparing food with coal. Wood fires are less consistent (in terms of temperature) and require more fuel more often than coal fires. Women who did the cooking—it was mostly women, of course—had to also be skilled in how different species of wood burned differently, and which types of fuel were most economical. 

The implications for the larger economy were significant as well. Goodman observes that wood production…

Blue Barrel Uses You Never Thought Of

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Plastic blue barrels are popular with preppers and survivalists for one very big reason: they are one of the most effective means for storing water and other liquids. They are a common sight on off-grid homestead properties for that reason.

But almost all preppers and homesteaders use blue barrels for their intended purpose of water storage.

That’s totally fine, but as we’ll soon see, these same blue barrels can also serve a number of other important uses as well that go beyond water storage.

Here are blue barrel uses you may have never thought of:

Rainwater Harvesting

Blue Barrel Uses You Never Thought OfThis is arguably the most obvious use for blue barrels that go beyond simply storing water in them.

You can create a rainwater harvesting system by attaching pipes between your gutters on your roof and your rainwater barrels.

This way, the water that is gathered by your rainwater catchment system will then travel down into the barrels.

Just make sure the gutters stay clean so the collected water will be clean too.

You can also learn here how to create an ingenious rainwater harvesting and purification system. This system is designed to store an impressive 165 gallons of water that might otherwise be lost, offering a valuable resource for obtaining clean drinking water in times of crisis.

Water Trough For Animals

Cut a barrel in two right down the middle from one end to the other. Then turn the two now cut-in-half barrel so that the open side is facing up, and fill it up with water.

This will serve as as a water trough for your livestock, such as chickens, rabbits, goats, or pigs.

Hay Feeder

As an alternative to water from the above example, you can fill up a blue barrel with hay (or other kind of feed) as well.

All you’ll need is one barrel, and you can use one half for water and the other for hay.

Planter or Raised Garden Bed

Blue Barrel Uses You Never Thought OfAfter cutting the barrel in half, you can alternatively fill it up with soil. Plant vegetable seeds or medicinal herb seeds, and you’ll have a garden going.

You can also use the half of the barrel as part of a raised garden bed by attaching it to wooden poles or legs in order to create a table-like structure.

Tree Swing

Cut a large enough hole into the blue barrel to turn it into a seat, and then add padding around the sharp or rough edges for comfort.

Then you can drill holes into the ends of the barrel and attach hooks into those holes, you can attach paracord or rope to the hooks.

Then attach the hooks to the strong enough branches of a tree, and you have a makeshift tree swing! This may not be a serious survival use, but it will…

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EDWEEK: Ed-Tech Industry Group Calls for Equity, Data Privacy Safeguards in AI 

The AI literacy piece in schools is crucial, said Suzanne Bernstein, law fellow at the Electronic Privacy Information Center, a nonprofit research center that advocates for stronger privacy standards.  

Students and teachers need to understand what to look for in AI products, to a degree that allows them to ask more questions and do more research if AI-produced materials don’t seem accurate, she said.   

While there still needs to be more regulatory action from the government in the AI space, having industry guidelines is a good first step, she said.  

“There should be a responsibility on companies to protect the safety and security of students online…especially when it comes to AI and the collection, retention, and use of data,” she said.   

“But these tools, when used responsibly, can be a tremendous help for all kinds of learners at different levels.”  

Read more here.

EPIC, Coalition Call on Key Lawmakers to Not Allow Section 702 Reauthorization to Slip into NDAA

EPIC and a coalition of privacy, civil liberties, and civil rights groups urged key lawmakers including the Majority and Minority Leaders of both the House and Senate, to not allow any reauthorization of FISA Section 702 to be slipped into the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) in conference. In the letter, the coalition of more than thirty groups emphasized that bypassing the judiciary committees’ process of reforming FISA “by slipping an extension of the law into the defense authorization bill during conference would demonstrate a blatant disregard for the civil liberties and civil rights of the American people.”

EPIC and a bipartisan coalition of privacy, civil liberties, and civil rights groups have launched a campaign to significantly reform Section 702 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act and related surveillance authorities. Members of this coalition recently urged Senate Majority Leader Chuck Schumer to refrain from including any short-term reauthorization of FISA Section 702 in the continuing resolution or any other “must-pass” legislation.

Law360: Departing Irish Privacy Regulator Leaves ‘Big Shoes To Fill’ 

Calli Schroeder, senior counsel and global privacy counsel at the Electronic Privacy Information also said the leadership change should “give us a really interesting picture of how much the Irish data protection commission’s actions to date have been based on the commissioner and how much they’ve been based on the structure of the agency and how enforcement works in the EU.” 

Schroeder said that while EPIC and other consumer groups have raised concerns over the pace and strength of Dixon’s office’s work during her tenure, “we really need to recognize the difficulty of the position she stepped into,” especially with the GDPR coming into effect after she was installed as commissioner.

Read more here.